Omics Overview

Omics

Since the sequencing of the human genome in 2003, a multitude of omics disciplines have developed to explain the complex inter-relationships of system-wide molecular biology. Traditionally molecular biology was performed on a molecule by molecule basis. Each molecule was purified and characterised. Omics technologies collectively identify and characterise thousands of molecules simultaneously. DNA sequencing has produced thousands of genomes for many organisms. These sequences have been annotated to identify genes and control regions. Sequencing and quantitating RNA allows us to determine which of the identified genes are being expressed. Identifying and quantifying proteins allows us to determine which of the expressed genes are translated and function as proteins. In addition, measuring post-transnational modification of the proteins, enables us to determine the state of the proteins. Measuring the metabolites of body fluids and cellular conditions, allows us to determine the metabolic fluxes. Measuring the composition of lipids allows us to observe changes in cellular membranes. Omics data generation produces a vast array of data. This data needs to be collected, stored and functionally annotated to deduce meaningful information from it. Fortunately, a number of tools have been developed to help us make sense of this data. This information portal will catalogue data generation resources and the tools used in the data analysis. Through the help centre we offer expert guidance and assistance for omics research.

Genomics is the study of the genetic content of organisms. Since the sequencing of the first human genome the technology has advanced astronomically. Thousands of genomes and thousand of human genomes have already been sequenced. In humans we have identified roughly 20 000 human genes. Identification of variances in these gene enables the diagnosis of genetic disorders and the mechanisms for the development of cancer. This information is vital in the treatment of these diseases and has spawned a new era of precision medicine. Where individuals are treated based on their unique biology rather that just as part of a population. 

 

 

Proteomics is the analysis of the study of proteins in a  biological system. Proteins are produced and degraded in different rates depending on their roles and necessity in cells. Since proteins are the main functional building blocks of any biological system, their abundance and state is a good representation of the state of the system. In addition to this proteins can also be post-translationally modified. These post-translational modifications affect the protein state and function. Studying the fluxes of post-translational modification provided further insight into the cellular state. Proteomics can provide us with information on the prevalence of cellular components, the activity of biological process, metabolic and signalling pathways with cells.

 

 

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